Indian American researchers making covid vaccine for older adults

Medicine

The team using animal adenovirus as safe and effective delivery vehicle.

A team of Indian American scientists is working to develop a unique covid-19 vaccine to protect all segments of the population, especially older adults using an adenovirus that causes disease in cattle.

Led by Purdue University virologist Suresh Mittal, the team aims to create a vaccine that uses a bovine adenovirus as a safe and effective delivery vehicle with a nearly $3.9 million grant from the National Institutes of Health.

“Adenoviral vectors have emerged as a promising gene-delivery platform for a variety of therapeutic and vaccine purposes during the last two decades,” said researcher Suresh Kuchipudi of Penn State University in a media release.

Kuchipudi is clinical professor of veterinary and biomedical sciences and associate director of Penn State’s Animal Diagnostic Laboratory.

“Historically, we have used human adenoviruses as platforms for vaccine delivery, but using a delivery system based on an animal adenovirus means that the human population will have no preexisting immunity to the vector, thereby improving its effectiveness.”

Kuchipudi explained that human adenoviruses are widespread and can cause common illnesses such as cold-like symptoms, fever, sore throat, bronchitis, pneumonia, diarrhea and pink eye.

“As a result, most people may have preexisting immunity that could impact the efficacy of vaccines delivered via a human-adenovirus-based vector.

The team which also includes immunologist Suryaprakash Sambhara from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has adapted an adenovirus typically found in cattle to prevent it from replicating, which enhances safety.

The researchers also modified the adenovirus to express a peptide that stimulates a robust immune response to influenza viruses in mice.

“Our preliminary work has revealed that this novel vaccine platform provides significantly higher levels of immunity compared to that of human adenovirus vectors,” Kuchipudi said.

“We hypothesize that immunization with this vector expressing relevant antigens of SARS-CoV-2 will strengthen an effective anti-COVID-19 immunity.”

The researchers noted that because SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerged virus for which humans have no previous immunity, any vaccine will have to be highly immunogenic to provide protection, particularly among older adults, whose immune systems naturally decline with age.

“This work suggests that the bovine adenovirus vector system could serve as an excellent delivery vehicle for the development of recombinant vaccines against emerging pathogens — for the elderly and other segments of the population,” Kuchipudi said.

“We believe this effort will yield an effective COVID-19 vaccine and could make a significant contribution to flattening the pandemic’s trajectory and helping to manage its second wave.”

READ MORE:

Covid-19: Trump hails Indian American scientists’ role in vaccine race (May 16, 2020)

Covid-19: From India to America, nations racing to find vaccine (May 11, 2020)

Advaite on the front lines of COVID-19 testing development (September 18, 2020)

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